2009. Prins MH et al. – Scoring and psychometric validation of the Perception of Anticoagulant Treatment Questionnaire (PACT-Q©)


Prins MH, Guillemin I, Gilet H, Gabriel S, Essers B, Raskob G, Kahn SR. Scoring and psychometric validation of the Perception of Anticoagulant Treatment Questionnaire (PACT-Q©). Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2009;7:30.


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BACKGROUND: The ‘Perception of Anti-Coagulant Treatment Questionnaire’ (PACT-Q) was developed to assess patients’ expectations of, and satisfaction with their anticoagulant treatment. This questionnaire needs to be finalised and psychometrically validated.

METHODS: The PACT-Q was included in the United States, The Netherlands and France into three phase III multinational clinical trials conducted to evaluate efficacy and safety of a new long-acting anticoagulant drug (idraparinux) compared to vitamin K antagonist (VKA). PACT-Q was administered to patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), atrial fibrillation (AF) or pulmonary embolism (PE) at Day 1, to assess patients’ expectations, and at 3 and 6 months to assess patients’ satisfaction and treatment convenience and burden. The final structure of the PACT-Q (Principal Component Analysis–PCA–with Varimax Rotation) was first determined and its psychometric properties were then measured with validity of the structure (Multitrait analysis), internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients) and known-group validity.

RESULTS: PCA and multitrait analyses showed the multidimensionality of the “Treatment Expectations” dimension, comprising 7 items that had to be scored independently. The “Convenience” and “Burden of Disease and Treatment” dimensions of the hypothesised original structure of the questionnaire were combined, thus resulting in 13 items grouped into the single dimension “Convenience”. The “Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction” dimension remained unchanged and included 7 items. All items of the “Convenience” and “Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction” dimensions displayed good convergent and discriminant validity. The internal consistency reliability was good, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.84 for the “Convenience” dimension, and 0.76 for the “Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction” dimension. Known-group validity was good, especially with regard to occurrence of thromboembolic events within 3 months from randomisation.

CONCLUSION: The PACT-Q is a valid and reliable instrument that allows the assessment of patients’ expectations and satisfaction regarding anticoagulant treatment, as well as their opinion about treatment convenience of use. Its two-part structure–assessment of expectations at baseline in the first part, and of convenience, burden and treatment satisfaction in the second–was validated and displays good and stable psychometric properties. These results are not sufficient to recommend the use of satisfaction as primary endpoint in clinical trials; further validation work is needed to support the interpretation of PACT-Q dimension scores. However, this first validation makes the PACT-Q an appropriate measure for use in clinical and pharmacoepidemiological research, as well as in real-life studies.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00067093, NCT00062803 and NCT00070655).